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Project management is one of the important innovate manage technology after the Second World War. Although erenow project management have used widely in many areas, such as engineering build project and new product development, until the Second World War it is known absolutely as a complicated activity in manage technology, or as a value of a special tool and an activity which need multi-knowledge cooperate, and the result make the project management become a newer manager ways and means which develop promptly and perfect incessantly. Now project management has regards as a good method, which has a life force and come true the complicated enterprise aim.
What’s project? Project is an one-off work, it should be accomplished by people who are specially systemized for this in stated time; it should have a specific prospective aim; it also should have specific available resource range; it need multi-knowledge to settle the problem; there is nothing or a fat of experience ago can be used for reference.
Project can means constructing a building, a factory or a big dam, it also can means settle some research task, for example develop a new drug, design and produce a new equipment or product, such as a new type computer. Those are all one-off, and all require completing in stated time, couldn’t exceeding a stated charge, having a definite require in capability etc. So someone said project is floorboard of new enterprise, new product, new engineering, new system and new technology.
Thus it can be seen in different project the content can be different in thousands ways. But the self of project has some common characteristics, which can be recapitulated as follows:
Project makes up of many parts and pans much organization, so it needs cooperate each other to finish it.
Usually project is organized in order to seek a new outcome.
Available resource should have a specific budget.
If available resource is assumptive, it wouldn’t accept other support.
It has a strict time limit, and promulgates to the public.
The composing personnel of project come from different specialty and different function department, and they still should go back to the former function department in principle after finishing the project.
The preservation and expansion of the project outcome usually go along by the people except the attendees of the project.
Compared with the concept of the project, the project management is systems manage method which organize operation mechanism provisionally through especial formal and make the best of the vested finite resource through valid plan, organization, lead and control for the sake of finishing the vested purpose in a certain time range.
“The certain time range” should be short-time comparatively in above definition, but in different project the concept of “short-time comparatively” isn’t absolute homology. For example the development of a new product should be half year to two or three years, and the construct of engineering may be three to five years, the period of a power plant may be longer than others.
The project management has some basic characteristics as follows:
The project management is a complicated work. Project management usually makes up of many parts, the work pans many organization, and needs use multi-knowledge to settle the problem; The project work usually has nothing or a fat of experience ago which can be used for reference, and there are many unknown factors in the enforcing, every factor often has the incertitude; It still organic organizes the people who has different experience and comes from different department in a provisional organization, and achieves the project aims in the stricter restricted condition of technique capability, cost, schedule and so on. These factors decide that the project management is a complicated work, and the complication is very big different with the ecumenical produce management.
The project management has creativity. Because of the characteristic of one-off, it both takes the venture in hand and must bring the creativity into play. That’s the mostly difference with the ecumenical repetitive manage. The creativity of project depends on the development and support of the technology, and the development of the neoteric technology has two obvious characteristics: The one is the inherit accumulate point, embodies that human can follow the former’s experience, inherit the former’s knowledge, experience and harvest, and develops along on this condition. The other is the integration, which means if want to settle complicated items, it must depend on and integrate multi-knowledge’s harvest, and band together many techniques, then can come true the leap of technology or faster development. Hereby in the prophase conceptive of project management we should think much of the technology witting work and the organization manage of the information that is the chiefly approach to come into being new conception and settle problems.